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Find out more about OverDrive accounts. This book offers a comprehensive framework to enhance student achievement in good times and in bad.

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The author provides a school improvement action plan and then shows how to target resources to implement that plan. More than just a "theory" book, this text describes concrete, specific actions that can be taken immediately. Key strategies include:. OverDrive uses cookies and similar technologies to improve your experience, monitor our performance, and understand overall usage trends for OverDrive services including OverDrive websites and apps.

We use this information to create a better experience for all users. Please review the types of cookies we use below. These cookies allow you to explore OverDrive services and use our core features. Without these cookies, we can't provide services to you. These cookies allow us to monitor OverDrive's performance and reliability.

They alert us when OverDrive services are not working as expected. Without these cookies, we won't know if you have any performance-related issues that we may be able to address. These cookies help us understand user behavior within our services. For example, they let us know which features and sections are most popular. In several chapters, the book identifies how these local actions can be reinforced or structured by state policies and regulations. Thus, the book will be of interest to schools and districts as well as state education and political leaders.

As such, the book also could function as a supplement in education administration courses, including school improvement, the principalship, education budgeting, and school finance. The book begins with an overview chapter on what is known about improving and turning around schools and student performance, while subsequent chapters address specific issues—such as resources, strategic budgeting, educator talent, and technology—related to those specific improvement strategies. The book does not simply address ways to reduce budgets or do things more efficiently but also [Page xiii] relates all recommendations back to the Plan of Action developed in the first chapter.

The book has a separate chapter on issues relating to teacher and principal talent, including a section on new approaches to teacher compensation and a section on teacher pensions; the latter suggests a better and more economically efficient way to structure teacher pensions that does not just shift the entire burden of having a pension onto the backs of educators. The book concludes with a separate chapter that addresses how to set priorities for situations that require budget cuts, which is the situation for many districts and schools around the country.

Thus, although the book stresses changes that can be made in the use of fiscal resources in the short term, it also addresses some long-term issues such as teacher salary structures and pensions and the potential for more use of technology in providing educational services. It identifies 12 strategies that have emerged from a wide range of literature, including the turnaround literature from the last few years.

The strategies discussed include the following:. Chapter 2 addresses in very specific terms the resource needs and costs of each of the strategies discussed in Chapter 1. By making this link, the chapter links the micro-issues of effective resource needs to the macro-issues of state school finance policy. Each of the major resource recommendations includes a citation to a randomized control trial that finds the individual strategy to positively impact student achievement and to a randomized control trail that finds all of these recommendations together to boost student learning.

This chapter discusses multiple possibilities both for cutting back budgets in strategic ways and for targeting resources to the all the elements of the Plan of Action—regardless of the budget context. It first discusses the cost increase pressures that bear down on schools and consume budget dollars in good and bad fiscal times. It then shows how districts and schools that have more than the resources described in Chapter 2 could cut back to the levels recommended in that chapter, with the argument being that such cuts would have little or no impact on student learning.

Then Chapter 3 discusses how schools and districts can be nimble and strategic about using the resources they have. It discusses the cost elements of school schedules; the differential costs associated [Page xv] with having six-, seven-, and eight-period days; and the links among cost, school schedules, and teacher individual plan time and collaborative team time.

It discusses how and why some districts spend significantly more on electives than core courses Roza, , and the modest costs of emerging high-quality career-technical programs such as Project Lead the Way. It addresses the costs of formative or short cycle and benchmark assessments, and the specific costs of various ways to structure Tier 2 interventions such as tutoring in groups of one to five students and extended-day and summer school programs.

It identifies research that shows that if high-quality core instruction is provided to all students Tier 1 , followed by effective Tier 2 strategies, then the incidents of students needing special education services can drop by 50 percent, thus reducing the costs of special education. Chapter 4 addresses educator talent. It includes three focused sections: one on recruiting and retaining educator talent, a second on revising teacher salary structures, and a third on revising educator pensions both their structure and who pays for them. The talent section summarizes new approaches for how schools and districts can acquire the teacher, principal, and central office talent needed to implement rigorous, comprehensive, robust, and effective educational improvement strategies.

Drawing from my new book that analyzes these issues in more depth Odden, a , the chapter then addresses teacher and principal talent acquisition, motivation and development, evaluation, and retention and their key state policy implications. This section also discusses the costs of partnering with new talent organizations such as Teach For America and The New Teacher Project to recruit better teacher talent, the costs of professional development issues related to new and more comprehensive ways to evaluate teachers and the core costs of these approaches , and the specifics of the cost aspects of cutting staff by effectiveness rather than seniority.

The next section addresses teacher compensation and the appropriate state role in stimulating new strategic directions in redesigning teacher salary schedules. The chapter also discusses the costs of these new approaches to teacher pay as well as the sources of funding districts can use to fund these new compensation strategies, arguing that the prime source for funding new approaches to teacher compensation is the current salary budget.

Finally, the last section of this chapter discusses educator pensions and the emerging literature on their costs and unequal benefits in the context of pressures across the country to rein in pension costs and make them more equitable as well as more predictable for teachers, principals, and other educators. Defined benefit public pensions are under attack both because they provide more predictable pensions than do k -type defined contribution plans and because many are underfunded though mainly because states have not appropriated their share each year.

It discusses the issue of educators artificially inflating their final average year salaries thus increasing their pension payouts and shows how public pensions primarily reward employees who stay in one education system for their entire work life and shortchange those who are more mobile, which is more characteristic of workers today. Though the prime policy shift across the country is to drop defined benefit programs and replace them with k -type pension programs, which shifts the responsibility for pensions from the public to the individual, an emerging hybrid approach—the cash balance pension—controls costs, links pension payouts to earnings over the lifetime of an individual, and balances individual and organization the government, in the case of educators responsibility for pensions.

This section reviews all these issues and recommends that states move to the cash balance approach, which seems to be the fairest, most affordable, and most economically sound new approach to providing individuals with pensions. Chapter 5 provides an overview of the various online learning options that have evolved and are being used in the K—12 education system. The first part of the chapter specifies the costs of equipping schools with sufficient computer technologies so that, if desired, curriculum and instructional delivery can fully tap the power of computer technologies.

The second part of the chapter describes the accelerating use of online programs to deliver education services and then describes the key features and costs of three major categories of online [Page xvii] educational programming: state virtual schools, private sector programs such as K12 Inc. This part of the chapter notes that most Advanced Placement AP programs are now available online at modest cost. The chapter argues that the Internet and computer technologies that exist today already offer ways to educate many though not all students that are both as effective as a regular classroom and cost much less, and suggests that in these tight fiscal times states, districts, and schools should seriously consider incorporating these technological possibilities into their curriculum and instructional strategies.

The last chapter is a summary, bringing all the strategies discussed in the book together to address the issues of what to do if, after resource reallocation, restructuring school programs, and implementing every possible efficiency, budget cuts are still needed. Issues addressed include a salary freezes as opposed to salary schedule freezes, b increasing employee contributions to health and pension benefits, c increasing class size by modest amounts, d changing school schedules from seven- and eight-period days to six-period days, e dismissing educators based on effectiveness rather than on seniority, and so on.

The chapter describes how these changes can be made for a handsomely funded elementary school, a low-funded high school, and a modestly funded middle school, as examples of how different schools can engage in the strategic budgeting process even when dollars must be cut. The goal of this chapter is to show how budget cuts can be made without negatively impacting the core instructional program and while retaining fairness between public sector costs and educator salaries and benefits when there is a broader economic slowdown, simultaneously possibly improving both the effectiveness and efficiency of the education dollar.

In short, the book is a guide for principals and education system leaders through the fiscal thicket they face for the next several years. It offers detailed guidance for how to link strategies that will boost student learning to budget practices, how budget cuts can be made while retaining a powerful instructional improvement program, and where new dollars could be invested in strategic ways.

The book also identifies the current financial pressures that the public places on schools, which erodes the fiscal ability of school leaders to implement the strategies outlined in the book, and argues in many places [Page xviii] for broader political and public support for the tough decisions detailed in the book, because educators cannot make the tough—but necessary—budget decisions required unless the political community supports them.

I would like to thank my administrative assistant, Lisa Armstrong, for tracking down all the references for this book; she is tops at this task. I also would like to thank my research assistant, Alan Nathan, a PhD student in the School of Education's Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Analysis, for his research on how schools are currently using technology to provide more and more services online. I am also indebted to the many, many teachers, principals, and central office leaders who created many of the strategies discussed in the book and had the courage to implement them in their schools and districts; their students have benefited from these more-effective uses of the education dollar.

In addition, Corwin would like to thank the following individuals for taking the time to provide their editorial insight and guidance:.

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He is an international expert on effective resource use in education, the strategic management of human capital in education, teacher performance-based compensation, teacher performance evaluations, education finance, resource allocation and use, resource reallocation, school-based management, and educational policy development and implementation. He directed several federal-funded and foundation-funded research centers from to He has worked with scores of districts on education fiscal issues and talent management issues and has advised state education and political leaders in more than 35 states and several countries, always seeking to translate research into the best practices, supported by effective policies.

He has published over journal articles and book chapters and 35 books. In many ways, Improving Student Learning When Budgets Are Tight is a culmination of his research career, which has focused on improving student performance by linking school improvement efforts to local budget practices and state school finance systems. The Corwin logo—a raven striding across an open book—represents the union of courage and learning.

Corwin is committed to improving education for all learners by publishing books and other professional development resources for those serving the field of PreK—12 education. CQ Press Your definitive resource for politics, policy and people. Remember me? Back Institutional Login Please choose from an option shown below. Need help logging in? Click here. Don't have access?

View purchasing options. Online ISBN: Online Publication Date: December 22, Publisher: Corwin Press.

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Print Purchase Options. A how-to manual for achieving excellence despite budget cuts How do you stay focused on increasing student learning when budget cuts threaten everything you are striving for? Key strategies include Using data to support boosting student performance; Focusing on effective instruction; Setting goals to drive resource allocation priorities; Establishing priorities for situations that require budget cuts; Hiring top teachers and providing ongoing professional Copy to Clipboard.

View Copyright Page [Page iv]. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN pbk. O33 Publisher's Acknowledgments. About the Author. Costs and funding of virtual schools. Aportela , A. Strategic management of human capital: New leaders for new schools. Strategic management of human capital: The new teacher project. Archer , J. The link to higher scores. Pea Ed.

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Archibald , S. Strategic management of human capital: Boston. Baum , M. Using short-cycle interim assessment to improve educator evaluation, educator effectiveness, and student achievement. Blankstein , A. Failure is not an option: 6 principles for making student success the only option. Thousand Oaks, CA : Corwin. Bloom , B. The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher , 13 6 , 4— Borman , G. Summer learning: Research, policies, and programs.

The longitudinal achievement effects of multi-year summer school: Evidence from the teach Baltimore randomized field trial. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis , 28 , 25— Final reading outcomes of the national randomized field trial of success for all. American Educational Research Journal , 44 3 , — Boudett , K. A step-by-step guide to using assessment results to improve teaching and learning. Data wise in action: Stories of schools using data to improve teaching and learning. Boyd , D. The narrowing gap in New York city teacher qualifications and its implications for student achievement in high-poverty schools.

Carlson , D. A multistate district-level cluster randomized trial of the impact of data-driven reform on reading and mathematics achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis , 33 3 , — Cavanaugh , C. Getting students more learning time online. Center on Education Policy. Districts foresee budget cuts, teacher layoffs and a slowing of education reform efforts. Washington, DC : Author. Chenoweth , K. It's being done: Academic success in unexpected schools. Childress , S.

Leading for equity: The pursuit of excellence in the Montgomery County public schools. Clark , R. Retiree health plans for public school teachers after GASB 43 and Education Finance and Policy , 4 5 , — The development of authentic educational technologies , Educational Technology , 37 2 5— Cooper , H. Making the most of summer school: A meta-analytic and narrative review. Costrell , R.


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Bloomington, IN : Solution Tree. Raising the bar and closing the gap: Whatever it takes. Earle , R. The integration of instructional technology into public education. Educational Technology Magazine , 42 1 , 5— Education Trust. The education trust [website]. Education Week. E-Learning for special populations [Supplement issue for August 24, ]. Education Week , 31 1 , S1—S Educational Leadership. Elmore , R. Investing in teacher learning: Staff development and instructional improvement. Sykes Eds.

Farr , S. Teaching as leadership: The highly effective teacher's guide to closing the achievement gap.

Improving Student Learning When Budgets are Tight

Fashola , O. Review of extended-day and after-school programs and their effectiveness. Felton , R. An overview of reading: Reading problems and effective reading programs. Finn , J. Tennessee's class size study: Findings, implications, misconceptions. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis , 21 , 97— The enduring effects of small classes.

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Teachers College Record , 2 , — Friedberg , L. Labor market effects of pensions and implications for teachers. Fullan , M. All systems go: The change imperative for whole system reform. Fusaro , J. The effect of full day kindergarten on student achievement: A meta-analysis. Child Study Journal , 27 4 , — Goetz , M. Strategic management of human capital: Teach for America. Goertz , M. Strategic management of human capital: New York City.

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The rise of K—12 blended learning. Watertown, MA : Innosight Institute. Howell , W. A national primer on K—12 online learning, version 2. Kimball , S. Strategic management of human capital: Chicago. Konstantopoulos , S.