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Qui devons-nous influencer? Le changement? More ignored still, hepatitis C which attacks the liver kills , people [3] every year in the region. However, effective treatment exists that can cure it. It aims to collectively adress challenges that still raise questions in the European Union and neighbouring countries, including inequalities in access to rights and to health.

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Each of its members works directly with other local and European partners. More informations on our website. There were Jews in the territory of France long before there were any Frenchmen, but it is also a really fascinating part of French contemporary history, with the complete transformation of the French Jewish community from essentially Ashkenazi Holocaust-survivors to second-generation Sephardi immigrants with very different positions in French life. The course offers a basic history and sociology of the Jewish community in France, and the moments when Jewishness is really part of French politics and life, like in , together with a study of books that attracted attention —getting the Prix Goncourt, or else displaying the awfulness of being Jewish, like La Vie devant soi.

I teach the course from time to time, but always have great difficulty in titling it. If all you read was Bataille, Blanchot, Butor and so forth you would not even know it existed.

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What questions were you trying to address within the vast field of translation studies? A central thesis of my book is to take issue with the idea of an originary, primal language, an idea that so many twentieth-century thinkers trip up on. In this view, linguistic diversity came about as a falling away and translation arose as a merely compensatory strategy for making up for the dreadful world that we are in.

In Britain, the moment somebody opens their mouth, they reveal social and geographical facts about themselves that are unmistakable and that they themselves feel unable to control except in special and usually ritualized circumstances. Everybody is bi-dialectal to some degree. Plenty of people work in the music-hall and adopt the voice of someone else. It would be simpler if everybody spoke the same. But we do not want to. The idea that in the beginning we were all of one speech is completely silly.

Obviously, I was not there, so I cannot say this is a matter of fact. It simply seems really implausible that, having invented a single language, people suddenly decided to start pronouncing it differently. You would have to find some pretty peculiar motivation, if that is the story. Although many anthropologists and many linguists far more learned than I am remain at the moment wedded to the idea of the monogenesis of language, there is no special reason to believe in it. Language behaviour may have arisen in different ways in different places, just like writing, which was invented four times independently.


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  5. That changes things for translation. If linguistic diversity is the very condition of the existence of language, then translation is integral to the existence of language. One should try to understand the world from translation outwards rather than constructing grand theories about what was in the beginning, and then assigning translation its position.

    It just makes everything much more interesting.

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    In the book, I want to lay the groundwork for a science of translation that is empirical, historical and not essentialist. If you go into the material, and try to understand it without presupposition, these merely terminological issues dissolve like the mist. Why people continue to talk about translation as a form of treason is a complete mystery to me. It is not as if the people who use this expression have first-hand experience of treason and dealing in state secrets.

    The fact is that translation arouses emotions in people. People get scared about the fact that everything said could always be said some other way, that meanings are not exact things. There is no magic super-language, either up there or back there, in which words and things have exact correspondence and where everybody knows what everybody means. How do we know how anybody else means anything in their language? That should be the subject of linguistics. I am quite excited by what is happening in artificial intelligence and machine translation at the moment. Tools of great sophistication have been developed and I am sure more will be coming soon, and there is no reason to be frightened of them.

    The existence of high-speed automatic devices will not put translators out of a job, because the demand for translation is always vastly more than the supply. No way will it diminish the diversity of human language. They will assist certain levels of intercommunication.

    They will allow people on board the language-learning machine. I do not reference any particular website in the book, because these things come and go, while the book is destined to sit on a shelf. Who knows what will come next? But the power of the digital devices we now have makes all sorts of things possible. What is more interesting, however, is that no successful translation machine program works on the presuppositions of standard translation studies theory. They are statistically-based, not meaning-based. Of course you should only use an automatic translation device to translate into a language that you know well, because then you can tell whether it is garbage or not.

    Maybe a lot of the opposition to machine translation comes from that misunderstanding. You have to have a human checker just to make sure it has not gone off the rails. I am not sure of the social impact that could have, but I can well imagine that having a more reliable translation engine will allow young people all over the world to get an idea of what the documents they are interested in on the web are about.